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2017年中考英语语法专题详解三 showed

  介词、连词

 

  一. 介词

 

  1. 介词概述:介词表示它与后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。介词是虚词,不能单独做句子成分。介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中范围内还应学一个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。

 

  2. 常用介词的意义和用法。

 

  ⑴ 时间或地点介词in、on、at的用法区别:

 

  表示时间时, in表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on表示在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at表示在某个时刻或者瞬间;

 

  表示地点时, in表示在某个范围之内, on表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at则表示在某个具体的场所或地点。如:

 

  He was born on the night of May 10th.

 

  I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning.

 

  His glasses are on the desk.

 

  My brother is at the bus stop.

 

  ⑵ after与in表示时间的用法区别:“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在…时刻之后”常用于一般过去时态;“in+(一段时间)”表示“在(多久)之后”,常用于将来时态。如:

 

  He said that he would come back after 6:00.

 

  My father is coming back from Astralia in about a month.

 

  ⑶ since与for表示时间的用法区别:“since+(具体时刻/that-从句)”表示“自从…起一直到现在”,“for +(一段时间)”表示“持续一段时间”,都常用于完成时态;如:

 

  My father has worked in this factory since 1970.

 

  My father has worked in this factory for over 30 years.

 

  ⑷ by、in与with表示方式的用法区别:都可以表示“工具、手段”,但是by主要表示“乘坐”某个交通工具或“以……方式”,在被动句中可以表示动作的执行者;in表示“使用”某种语言/文字,with表示“使用”某个具体的工具、手段。如:

 

  We write with our hands and walk with our feet.

 

  Please speak in English.

 

  Let’s go to the zoo by bus.

 

  It was invented by Adison.

 

  ⑸ about与on的用法区别:都可以表示“有关…”,但是about的意义比较广,而on主要表示“有关…(专题/课程)”。如:

 

  Tom is going to give a speech on the history of China.

 

  They are talking about the English test.

 

  ⑹ through与across、over的用法区别: through指“穿过…(门洞/人群/树林)”; across和over可以指“跨越…(街道/河流)”,可互换,但是表示“翻过…”时只能用over. 如:

 

  Just then a kangaroo (鼠)ran across the road.(就在那时一只袋鼠跑过路面)

 

  There is a bridge across/over the river.(河上有座桥)

 

  They climbed over the mountain and arrived there (他们翻过大山到达了那里)/

 

  The visitors went through a big gate into another park.(参观者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园)

 

  (7)as与like的区别:两个词都表示“像……”,但是as译为“作为……”,表示的是职业、职务、作用等事实,而like译为“像……一样”,表示外表,不是事实。如:

 

  Let me speak to you as a teacher.(我以老师的身份和你讲话。)

 

  Let me speak to you like a teacher.(让我像一位老师一样和你讲话)

 

  (8)in front of 与in the front of:in front of“在…的前面”, 与in the front of“在…的前部”。如:

 

  A group of people was standing in front of the hall.

 

  In the front of the hall stood a group of people.

 

  (12)except与besides的区别:except“除了”,表示排除掉某人物,即不包含;而besides“除了”则表示包含,即“不仅……又……”。如:

 

  Everyone went to the park except Tom.(除了Tom,大家都去了公园)(Tom没有去公园)/

 

  Besides maths he also studied many other subjects.(除了数学之外,他还学其他许多功课)(“数学”也是他学的功课之一)

 

  连词

 

  1.连词概述:连词是一种虚词,用于连接单词,短语或句子,但不单独做句子成分。按照连词的性质,可将连词分为并列连词和从属连词。并列连词如:and,but,or,for等,它们即可连接单词,短语,又可连接句子。从属连词如:when,before ,because等,它们主要引导名词性从句。

 

  2.常见连词的用法:

 

  1)并列连词 的用法: 并列连词有:and, but, or, nor, so, for yet, however, as well as, both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, still,

 

  And: 连接单词短语句子 。如:Tom and I study in the same school.

 

  But, or :I have a pen but no pencil. / Would you like coffee or tea?

 

  Nothing but除了,只有: I did nothing but watch it.

 

  Or表示否则:如: Hurry up or you will miss the train.

 

  for 表示后面的句子是原因。如: He is good at piano for he practices harder than others.

 

  Not only…but also 不仅…而且。可并列主、谓、宾、表及句子。主语并列时,谓语要就近一致。如: Not only he but also I am a nurse.

 

  As well as 以及,同样。并列单词、短语、句子。并列主语时,动词要随前面的主语变化 .如:He works as well as he can

 

  Either…or 既…又…,或…或…,并列主、谓、宾、表及状语 ,如:Either come in or go out.

 

  Neither…nor 既不…也不, 并列主、谓、宾、表、状语,并列主语时,谓语就近一致。如:Neither you nor he is lazy.

 

  Both…and 和,既…也,并列主、谓、宾及表语。I can speak both English and French.

 

  nor 也不,引导句子要倒装 。如:He can not play the piano, nor can I.

 

  so 因此,所以,不和because连用。如:You like swimming, so do I.

 

  1) 从属连词的用法: 从属连词有:after, when, before, as, while, since, until, till, if, unless, because, than, that, whether, so that

 

  after 表示“时间”,在…之后。如:After I finished the school, I became a worker in the factory.

 

  Although/though 表示让步, “尽管”。如: Although she is young, she knows a lot.

 

  as 表示时间,“当…时”,方式“象…”,原因,“由于、因为”让步,“尽管、虽然” 。如: As it was rainy, we couldn’t go out now.

 

  As if/as though 表方式,“似乎、好像” 。如: He told us such a story as though he had been there before.

 

  As long as/so long as 表条件,“只要” 。如: As long as I am here, I’ll go to help you.

 

  As soon as 表时间,“一…就…”。如: I will call you as soon as I come back.

 

  because 表原因,“因为”。如: I have to practice more because I am not good at English.

 

  before 表时间,“在…之前’’ 。如: You should think more before you do it.

 

  Even if/ even though 表让步,“即使”。如: You should try again even if you failed.

 

  Hardly…when 表时间,“(刚)一…就”。如: Hardly I entered the gate when the bell rang.

 

  if “假如”,引导条件状语从句。如: We will stay at home if the rain doesn’t stop.

 

  “是否”,引导宾语从句。如; I don’t know if he goes shopping.

 

  In order that 表目的,“为了,以便”。如: We study hard in order that we can pass the exam.

 

  No matter +疑问词 表让步,“无论,不管”。如: No matter what you do, you should try your best.

 

  No sooner…than 表时间,“刚一…就…”。如: No sooner had I come home than it began to rain.

 

  once 表时间,“一旦…”。如: Once you read this book, you’ll never forget it.

 

  since 表时间,“自从…以来”.如: He has been in this city since he left school.

 

  表原因,“既然,由于” 。如: Since the job is dangerous, let’s do it more carefully.

 

  so far as/as far as 表条件,“就…而言,就…而论”.如:As far as I know, it is easy for you to speak in English.

 

  So that 表目的,“以便” 。如: Speak loud so that everybody can hear clearly.

 

  So…that 表结果“如此,以致”。如: He got up so early that he caught the early bus.

 

  than 表示比较,“比” 。如: Things were worse than we thought.

 

  unless 表条件,“除非,如果不” 。如: You will fail in the test unless you study hard.

 

  Until/till 表时间,“直到…为止” 。如: I’ll wait till my mother comes back.

 

  when 表时间,“当…时’’。如: When they got there, the train has left.

 

  whether “是否”引导名词性从句 。如: Whether he can come to see us is unknown.

 

  表让步,“不管/无论、是否”。如:Whether she is rich or poor, she is always happy.

 

  while 表时间,“当…时” 。如: While he was in Beijing, he visited the Great Wall.

 

  whenever 表时间,“无论什么时候”。如: Whenever you meet any trouble, tell me at once.

 

  实战演练(2×50)

 

  1.—-How old are you?

 

  —-I’m fifteen. I was born ________ 1990.

 

  A. in B. at C. on

 

  2. I study for a test _________ working with a group.

 

  A. in B. by C. at

 

  3. A tsunami(海啸) happened in some southern Asian countries________ December, 2004.

 

  A. at B. on C. in

 

  4. Tim’s mum is worried _______ her son’s study as he plays computer games too much.

 

  A. for B. about C. with

 

  5. We should return the books to the library ______ time.

 

  A. about B. on C. by

 

  6. ________ your help, my maths has improved a lot.

 

  A. With B. Without C. Under

 

  7. A thief stole my wallet_______ the night of May 1st.

 

  A. at B. in C. on

 

  8. James is looking ________ his cat everywhere. Have you seen it ?

 

  A. like B. at C. for

 

  9. It’s not always necessary to look up the words ________ the dictionary while reading. Sometimes we need to guess.

 

  A. on B. in C. at

 

  10. Zhangjiajie is famous _______ its beautiful mountains.

 

  A. from B. at C. for

 

  11.Children get gifts ____ Christmas and ____ their birthdays.

 

  A. on; on B. at; on C. in; in

 

  12. The plane is starting___five minutes.

 

  A. in B. at C. for

 

  13. Lucy sits____ the third row, ____Jim's right.

 

  A. on; on B. in; at C. in; on

 

  14.Shanghai is___ the east of China, but Japan is ___ the east of China.

 

  A. to; in B. in; to . C. on; to

 

  15. 1 like rice dumplings ____ meat ____ them.

 

  A. in; on B. with; on C. with; in

 

  16. When you are ___ trouble please ask help ___ us.

 

  A. in; from B. in; for C. on; from

 

  17. He put up a map ___ the back wall because there was a hole ___ it.

 

  A. on; on B. at; in C. on; in

 

  18. This kind of TV is made____ China. .

 

  A. in B. from C. at

 

  19. There are some birds singing___ the trees.

 

  A. in B. on C. at

 

  20. Don't read ____ the sun. It's bad ___ your eyes.

 

  A. in; to B. under; for C. with; to

 

  21.Some planes are flying___ the city.

 

  A. through B. over , C. on ,

 

  22. A mother camel was walking ___ her son ___ the desert.

 

  A. without; along B. with; through C. next to; pass

 

  23. The river runs____ the city.

 

  A. cross B. through C. over

 

  24. My uncle lives ____ 56 Changan Street.

 

  A.on B. of C. at

 

  25. They are waiting ___ a bus ___ the bus stop.

 

  A. for; in B. on; at C. for; at

 

  26. Is there any difference ____ these two sentences?

 

  A. for B. in C. between

 

  27. Our headmaster showed the visitors ____ our school.

 

  A. to B. for C. around

 

  28. Nobody knew it ____ me.

 

  A. except B. beside C. besides

 

  29. Do you know any other foreign language____ English.

 

  A. without B. beside C. besides

 

  30. — Can you play football?

 

  — Yes, I can, ______ I can't play it very well.

 

  A. or B. and C. but

 

  31. There is something wrong___my bike.

 

  A. at B. in C. with

 

  32. -His sudden death surprised his wife.

 

  -It was so bad. His wife was surprised ____ his death.

 

  A. by B. with C. at

 

  33. Don't laugh____ him, everyone will make mistakes.

 

  A. at B. to C. about

 

  34. What did you have ___ breakfast?

 

  A. at B. as C. for D. about

 

  35. He can speak English_______ Chinese.

 

  A. but B. also C. and

 

  36. Physics is not so easy, _______I like it very much.

 

  A. but B. or C. since

 

  37. Will Tom wait for her at home ______ at the library?

 

  A. or B. as C. so that

 

  38. I'll give her the gift ______ Mary arrives.

 

  A. so B. before C. as soon as

 

  39. The woman was____ angry_____ she couldn't say anything.

 

  A. neither…nor B. either…or C. so…that

 

  40. I can't sleep well at night, ______I often feel sleepy in the day.

 

  A. so B. because C. and

 

  41. Study hard, ______ you will fall behind.

 

  A. and B. but C. or

 

  42. _________ John _______I are policemen.

 

  A. Neither … nor B. Either … or C. Both … and

 

  43. He didn't go to sleep ______he finished his homework.

 

  A. till B. before C. until

 

  44. Wait for me in the room _______ I come back.

 

  A. until B. and C. so

 

  45. Go along the road, _______ you'll find the bookstore at the end of it.

 

  A. when B. and C. or

 

  46. You'll be late ______ you don't get up early tomorrow morning.

 

  A. if B. when C. before

 

  47. The scientist knows two languages. He can speak _________ English _________ French.

 

  A. either; or B. neither; nor C. both; and

 

  48. His hobby is ______ reading_______ collecting stamps. It’s growing flowers.

 

  A. either; or B. both; and C. neither; nor

 

  49. Neither he nor I _______ from Canada. We are from Australia.

 

  A. is B. are C. am

 

  50. Mr Smith comes from America, and he has studied Chinese in China for 5 years. So you can talk with him ________.

 

  A. either in English or in Chinese B. not in Chinese but in English

 

  C. just in English, not in Chinese

 

  答案: 1-5 ABCBB 6-10 ACCBC 11-15 BACBC 16-20 BCAAB 21-25 BBBCC

 

  26-30 CCACC 31-35 CCACC 36-40 AACCA 41-45 CCCAB 46-50 ACCCA

 

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